Author: James Kingsland

I'm a freelance science writer formerly on the staff of New Scientist and the Guardian in London. Right now my particular interest is Buddhist psychology and mindfulness research. My book about the science of enlightenment, Siddhartha's Brain, comes out in 2016 (on 26 April in the US and 2 June in the UK)

Can acid dissolve the social isolation of autism and Asperger’s syndrome?

Aaron Paul Orsini felt utterly alone in the world: emotionally numb and devoid of any sense of connection with anybody, including himself. Sunk deep in depression since his teens, he spent much of his time alone in his bedroom, as he puts it, “trying to figure out how the game of being human worked … I kept going to therapy. I kept reading books. I kept working at my desk job. I kept trying new medications. I kept failing, time and time again, with the simple act of identifying the emotional needs of myself and others.”

He spoke to his therapist about his struggles to maintain contact with friends and make new ones, “and how even one-on-one moments felt very confusing at times. I was physically close to people such as my girlfriend, but still very much emotionally distant, from her, myself, and really, everyone in my life.”

At 23 he was at last given a diagnosis that made sense of his tortured efforts to connect socially: autism spectrum disorder. But while the revelation was intellectually interesting, he says, it left him in precisely the same bind: unable to make sense of his own emotions or others’, “feeling irretrievably broken” and increasingly having thoughts about ending it all.

He even began to lose his few remaining close connections. People just weren’t prepared to put up with him any longer, he recalls. He quit his job and shortly afterwards matters came to a head when a loyal friend was knocked down and killed by a drunk driver. “This was hell. And there was no escaping it. That was really how I seemed to believe my life would go. And I was so, so exhausted by that belief.”

In a last-ditch attempt to break out of the psychological prison in which he found himself, Aaron sold all his belongings, packed a bag and took off. Somehow he wound up alone in a forest where he consumed around 200 micrograms of LSD.

What happened next proved to be a turning point in his life. As he describes it in his newly published book Autism on Acid, “so many realisations seemed to come crashing in all at once” as the cognitive processing centres of his brain began to mesh for the first time. “Connection. Such connection. I felt it, in so many ways. I felt it.”

As the LSD took hold, he connected, “with the trees and breeze and sunlight around me, I experienced a deep moment of engagement. Yes. A moment of connection, with nature, with thoughts of my parents, my family, friends, and the whole of the human family and the broader web of life.”

Psychedelic connections
Psychedelics such as LSD increase chatter or “functional connectivity” between brain regions that are not usually on talking terms. Image: Otto Rapp/Flickr

Not only did he not feel like killing himself any more, he felt very much like living. “And while yes, this dose exposed me to many of the commonly described hallmarks of the larger-dose LSD experience, it was what happened after the peak effect that really blew my mind, or should I say, heart, into a state of absolute wonderment.”

After a few joyous hours of communing with the natural world, he stood up and walked out of the forest and encountered a stranger. “A stranger, yes, that suddenly, somehow, didn’t seem strange at all. And I said “Hi.” And they said “Hi.” And it felt, natural?! I felt, compelled, to connect. And that might not seem like that big of a deal, but for me, it was everything!”

While they talked about nothing of any consequence, he found he was aware of the feelings and intentions of the other in a way that had been impossible just a few hours earlier. “I felt the weight of their words. I sensed their state of mind. I grasped the context of what was unfolding. And for the first time in my entire 27 years of existence, I felt fully connected to the person opposite me … I could be conscious of the impact of my words and actions, because I felt them, within myself, within the person across from me. Empathy. Arresting empathy. I felt it.”

What Aaron was experiencing was the dawning of “theory of mind” – an intuitive awareness of others’ thoughts, feelings and intentions, and how the particular words he chose, their intonation and delivery would impact how he or she would feel. This ability is lacking to a greater or lesser degree among people “on the spectrum” of autism, which ranges from the high functioning of Asperger’s at one end to profound disablement at the other, and it helps explain their vulnerability to social isolation, anxiety and depression.

Aaron is not the only autistic man to make claims publicly about the beneficial effects of psychedelic drugs on their condition. A quick internet search reveals three other compelling examples. There’s a young British man called Alyx who blogs about his journeys of discovery on magic mushrooms, which have apparently allowed him to ditch his unhealthy computer obsessions and make eye contact with his carer for the first time; a YouTube video of an American who remains remarkably coherent after a very large, enlightening dose of LSD; and an interview on the Voices in the Dark podcast with a man who claims LSD and MDMA “opened a door he didn’t know existed” into the social world of his fellow humans. Other positive accounts can be found on Reddit, such as this one.

There have been no formal scientific investigations into the effects of classic psychedelics on autism for almost 50 years, but between 1959 and 1974 LSD was tried as an experimental therapy for children with severe autism aged between six and ten who hadn’t responded to any other treatment. The experiments were not only ethically questionable, however, they were also poorly designed by today’s standards, making any firm conclusions impossible. Nonetheless, the researchers who conducted them consistently reported that the drug led to improved speech, greater emotional responsiveness, more positive mood, including frequent smiling and laughter, and decreases in obsessive behaviour.

Interestingly, in a recent survey of a mixed group of people who take regular microdoses of psychedelic drugs in the belief they improve their cognitive and emotional functioning, respondents on the autistic spectrum reported no significant improvements in their symptoms. This makes sense in the light of a study published in the American Journal of Psychiatry in 2006 which found that people with Asperger’s have a lower density of the receptors to which psychedelic molecules bind (known as serotonin 2A receptors) in key brain regions.

If true, this would not only explain why microdoses have little apparent effect on autism symptoms but also the unusually high tolerance that people on the spectrum appear to have for much larger doses of psychedelics.

The same study also found that the density of serotonin 2A receptors in the brains of people with Asperger’s was inversely proportional to impairments in their ability to communicate socially. In other words, those subjects with the lowest receptor density performed worst in social situations.

There is known to be weaker connectivity between key regions in the brains of people with autism compared with “neurotypicals” while they perform tasks involving theory of mind: a skill vital for connecting with other people socially and emotionally. In particular, impaired connectivity between nodes of the “default mode network” – the network responsible for theory of mind and self-referential processing – has been linked to their difficulties intuiting the thoughts and feelings of others.

LSD and psilocybin acutely increase connectivity between brain regions. So in theory, by boosting connectivity, at least temporarily, they could provide people on the spectrum with flashes of insight into a world of social communication from which they’ve been excluded.

LSD functional connectivity ring
Functional connectivity between 132 brain regions on LSD. Yellow and red indicate increased connectivity, blue indicates reduced connectivity. Müller et al 2018

People on the spectrum are often excellent at focusing on fine details but this “superpower” seems to come at the expense of aspects of the bigger picture, notably social awareness and communication: they can’t see the wood for the trees. Another downside of this intense, narrow focus are overwhelming, distressing feelings of sensory overload in chaotic, unpredictable situations.

According to a leading theory of how the central nervous system works, the brain functions as a multilayered information-processing hierarchy, with predictions about the world being sent downwards from higher cognitive regions, while “prediction errors” – the discrepancies between these predictions and sensory data – pass upwards from the senses to update the brain’s models of reality.

Crucially, brain chemicals such as serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline fine-tune the flow of information through this processing hierarchy. They control the volume or “gain” of the signals, adjusting the relative influence of top-down predictions and bottom-up sensory prediction errors.

Psychedelic molecules bind to serotonin receptors in brain regions near the top of the hierarchy, which is why they are proving such promising tools for breaking the dominance of unhelpful emotional and cognitive models in people suffering from a wide range of mental illnesses, from anxiety and depression to obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and post traumatic stress disorder. They shake things up, promoting cross-talk between brain regions that don’t usually communicate, opening a window of opportunity for relearning.

Autism can also be characterised as an imbalance between bottom-up and top-down signalling leading to entrenched, maladaptive cognitive models. So it makes sense that psychedelics might rebalance or “re-tune” the autistic mind to help people on the spectrum see the bigger social, emotional picture.

“LSD was the turnkey for my life,” Aaron writes in his book. “It simultaneously saved my life while at the same time imbuing it with a sense of meaning, connection, and accessibility.”

It goes almost without saying that psychedelic researchers are anxious not to repeat the mistakes of the Sixties, so it may be several years before they turn their attention to the most controversial potential therapeutic uses for drugs such as LSD and psilocybin, and the psychedelic tea ayahuasca, not least autism and bipolar disorder (which I’ve written about in a previous post).

Aaron doesn’t recommend anyone else on the spectrum takes the same path he did. “LSD is still an unregulated and illegal drug. So anyone who hears of my story, please, please, please, for the sake of your own safety and the safety of others, please do not consider this story to be an invitation to try this at home … But maybe, someday, try this under the supervision of trained and certified professionals.”

All proceeds from the sale of Autism on Acid: How LSD Helped Me Bridge the ASD-Neurotypical Divide by Aaron Paul Orsini (@AutismOnAcid) will be donated to psychedelic research organisations

psilocybin brain connectivity
Brain connectivity on placebo and on psilocybin, the psychedelic ingredient of magic mushrooms. Image: Beckley Foundation




Dreams, meditation and psychedelics: a manifesto for lucidity

“The life of one day is enough to rejoice. Even though you live for just one day, if you can be awakened, that one day is vastly superior to one endless life of sleep.”

Zen master Dogen

Awake or asleep, “Am I dreaming?” may be one of the most important questions you ever ask yourself because, sooner or later, reality has a way of catching up with delusions and fantasies. There’s going to be a rude awakening.

Dreams are so convincing while you are in the midst of one. For all you know you could be dreaming right now. How do you know this is actually happening, that you are wide awake reading these words on a solidly, physically existing electronic device? You could be fast asleep dreaming the whole thing.

It is not difficult, in principle, to determine whether or not you are dreaming. There are plenty of readily available tests. Of course the classic is to pinch yourself. Another is to try pushing your finger through the palm of your hand. A popular though less discrete method is to jump into the air to check whether or not gravity is working as it should. Or you could scrutinise a clock or watch face: if the numbers are jumbled or the hands are moving too fast or too slow – or in the wrong direction – the chances are you’re dreaming. As you read this, are the words behaving themselves on the page? Are they making sense?

Anyone dreaming? Continue reading “Dreams, meditation and psychedelics: a manifesto for lucidity”

Grownups with imaginary friends may be more prone to hearing voices

Woman reading on beach
People who have a tendency to hear auditory hallucinations may experience fictional characters in books as more vivid and real. Photograph: Pedro Ribeiro Simões/Flickr

As a child, did you have an imaginary friend? Studies have found that up to two thirds of seven-year-olds play with invisible friends, but it turns out a surprisingly large number of adults also have fantasy companions.

In the biggest online survey of its kind, conducted by psychologists at the University of Durham in the UK, 7.5% of people claimed to have had one as an adult. The same people were also more likely to report experiencing auditory vocal hallucinations (AVHs) or “hearing voices” than those who had never had an imaginary companion. A second, lab-based study conducted by the same psychologists backed up the findings, raising the possibility that the two phenomena – hearing voices and fantasy friends – share the same underlying brain mechanism. (more…)

Is waking consciousness just a dream within a dream?

Buddha Dreaming
Buddha Dreaming by Alice Popkorn – “Our life is shaped by our mind”. Source: Flickr

Earlier this week I was honoured to spend some time as a guest at Night Club, chatting to its founder Andrew Holecek about dreaming, meditation and consciousness. Night Club is an online forum where members learn how to become lucid during their dreams – fully aware that what they’re experiencing is a fantasy created by their own minds. But Night Club offers a whole lot more than this, because the practices and disciplines that can be deployed to cultivate nighttime lucidity also help members penetrate the illusions of their waking consciousness.

Andrew is a renowned lucid dream and dream yoga teacher who has written several wonderful books on this and related subjects. At the request of my publisher a few months ago he had kindly set aside some time to read my own book Am I Dreaming? before it hits the shelves on 1 August, and subsequently invited me to be interviewed for Night Club.

We had plenty to talk about and the interview is now live (see below).

Am I Dreaming? explores the neuroscience of altered states of consciousness, such as dreams, trance, hypnosis, meditation and the psychedelic state, and the role they can play in improving our spiritual and psychological wellbeing. The major surprise that came from my investigation of the latest scientific thinking is that all forms of consciousness, including ordinary, waking consciousness, are based on hallucinatory, virtual reality conjured by the brain and are powerfully influenced by expectation and belief.


The shameful history of psychedelic gay conversion therapy

Anti-gay preacher London Gay Pride 2011
London Pride 2011: Public and medical attitudes to homosexuality have come a long way since the psychedelic sixties, but in most countries “conversion therapy” remains legal in private practice and under the guise of religious “ex gay” counselling. Photo: Jason/Flickr

In the softly lit Acid Room of Hollywood Hospital, Ravel’s Bolero is playing through expensive speakers. Prints of Dali’s Crucifixion and Gauguin’s Buddha hang on the wall. Dressed in pyjamas and a bathrobe, a man swallows 400 micrograms of LSD – a truly heroic dose – stretches out on a plush couch and dons an eye mask. For the next 6 to 12 hours, a female and a male member of staff – representing his mother and father – will watch over him. “Just go with the experience – whatever happens,” they advise. Later, in the midst of the trip, they encourage him to gaze at photographs of his loved ones and contemplate his reflection in a hand mirror, dredging emotionally charged, repressed memories from his subconscious and sparking life-changing flashes of insight.  

In the 1950s and 1960s, wealthy clients paid to be psychoanalysed in the Acid Room at this private hospital in New Westminster, British Columbia, for problems ranging from relationship difficulties to alcoholism, depression and – it now transpires – homosexuality. Research papers and medical records that have gathered dust for decades reveal that LSD and mescaline-assisted “conversion therapy” was available not only in Canada, but also in the US and the UK. (more…)


Meditation brightens mood by pumping up dopamine levels

In an age of instant gratification and limited attention spans, why would anyone take up meditation? Perhaps for its soothing, stress-busting effects? Focusing on their breath or a mantra, even beginners start to notice the calming influence of their body’s “relaxation response”, the physiological flipside of the adrenaline-fuelled fight-or-flight response. Among other things the relaxation response slows respiration and heart rate, eases muscle tension and lowers blood pressure, and the changes are associated with a quieting of the brain’s “default mode network”, responsible for mind-wandering, rumination and worry.

But can that really be the whole story?

A peaceful mind is a wonderful thing and for many this is the biggest incentive to meditate regularly – not least for those of us prone to anxiety and depression – but there is another, related benefit that has received scant scientific or medical attention: meditation can be pleasurable, even ecstatic. In the Buddhist meditation known as jhana, for example, the early stages are characterised not only by feelings of peacefulness, but also joy and happiness. Continue reading “Meditation brightens mood by pumping up dopamine levels”

The man on a lone mission to prove ayahuasca can treat bipolar disorder

Ayahuasca vine Banisteriopsis caapi
The ayahuasca vine Banisteriopsis caapi which contains an enzyme that prevents the breakdown of a wide range of psychoactive drugs. Credit: Jairo Gavlis Henao/Flickr

Expert opinion is heavily weighted against Benjamin Mudge. “If you asked your average psychedelic scientist, your average ayahuasca ceremony facilitator or expert in the field, or if you asked your average psychiatrist,” he says, “they would all say ayahuasca is dangerous for people with bipolar disorder because there’s a risk of manic depressive mood swings getting worse.”

And yet Mudge regularly drinks the South American psychedelic brew, claiming that it has stabilised his own bipolar disorder. (more…)